Perceived Barriers of Breastfeeding among Jordanian Mothers

Adlah mohammad Hamlan, Mohammad H. Bani Khaled, Atallh A. Al Habahbeh


Background: To Breastfeeding is a health behavior that is considered an ideal method of feeding and nurturing infants. However, there is a reduction in the rate of breastfeeding despite the multiple breastfeeding initiatives.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the perceived barriers of breastfeeding among Jordanian mothers.

Methods: A cross sectional descriptive design was used. The study recruited a convenient sample of 500 Jordanian mothers who gave birth to a healthy full-term infant, and who did not initiate breastfeeding post-delivery or discontinued the process before six months of infant’s age. Mothers of infants with serious illnesses were excluded from the study. The data were collected by a self reported measure, the Breastfeeding Perceived Barrier Scale. The measure consists of 22 items covering maternal factors, infant factors, and socio-environmental factors. The measure has internal consistency reliability (alpha coefficient = 0.73).

Results: The study participants reported total mean of breastfeeding barrier (84.0 ± 8.3) out of 110- as the total score of the barriers- the results indicated high level of breastfeeding barriers. Also, the results showed high level of barriers in the maternal factor (3.6 ± .51), infant factor (4.0 ± .42), and socio-environment (4.0 ± .52). Breast physical problems, mothers’ lack of knowledge, infant refusal of breast milk, and working environment are the most perceived barriers.

Conclusions: The study revealed that Jordanian mothers have relatively high level of breastfeeding perceived barriers.


Breastfeeding, Perceived barriers, Jordanian mothers

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