Oral Cytobrush Findings in Type II Diabetes

Mohammad T., Ahmed Baban, Balkees T. Garib


Identify cytological alteration in gingival and buccal smears from type II diabetics in relation to their oral symptoms and hyperglycemic status.
Cytological Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from cheek and gingiva of 20 non treated, 20 treated diabetics and 20 healthy persons of both sex after measuring their HbA1c and recording their oral symptoms. Hundred unfolded cells were evaluated morphologically under microscope and then nuclear and cytoplasmic areas, ratio, perimeters, and form factors were measured by MCID software.
Diabetics smears showed large nucleus, small cytoplasm, and small cytoplasm/nucleus ratio with no sex variation. There were frequent evidence of binucleation, granular chromatin and prominent nucleoli, beside many small blue cells in gingival smear and keratinization in buccal mucosa. Xerostomia and burning sensation correlated with nuclear parameters, while HbA1c was correlated with both cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters. Well-controlled patients showed reduction in nuclear area, but nucleus and cytoplasm form factors were unlike normal.
Oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphometric and cytomorphological changes that is site specific and tend to return partially to their normal status in well-controlled patients, with no sex variation. NA seems to be the main parameter that changed during hyperglycemia and xerostomia, while both NA and CA were related to burning sensation.

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