Investigation of Antioxidant, Analgesic, Antimicrobial, and Anthelmintic Activity of the Aerial parts of Paederia foetida (Family: Rubiaceaea)

Utpal Kumar Karmakar, Sonya Akter, Sharmin Sultana


Paederia foetida Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae) has been traditionally used in Bangladesh as medicinal plant for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities of the aerial parts of P. foetida. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract of the aerial parts of P. foetida Linn. exhibited the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, acidic compounds, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. In the TLC-based qualitative antioxidant assay using DPPH, P. foetida extract showed free radical scavenging properties indicated by the presence of yellowish white spot on a purple background on the TLC plate. In the quantitative antioxidant assay using DPPH, IC50 value was approximately 75.52 µg/mL, where IC50 value of the ascorbic acid was approximately 15.78 µg/mL. P. foetida extract displayed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (SC50 = 196.03 mg/L) which was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid (SC50 = 80.83 mg/L). The total phenolic content (TPC) and total tannin content (TTC) were found to be ~55.36 mg and ~36 mg GAE/gm of the dried plant extract respectively, using gallic acid calibration curve. Total flavonoid content was determined ~60 mg QE/gm of dried plant extract using quercetin calibration curve. The extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, V. cholerae, and P. aeruginosa species at the dose of 250 and 500 µg/disc in comparison with standard drug ciprofloxacin (30 µg/disc) and flucloxacillin (30 µg/disc). The extract showed significant (p<0.01) acute peripheral analgesic activity at the doses of 250 mg/kg (34.66% writhing inhibition) and 500 mg/kg (65.91% writhing inhibition) determined by acetic acid induced writhing reflex in mice as compared to control Diclofenac sodium (79.55%). In the anthelmintic test, the extract showed dose dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the parasites (Trematode and Nematode). The phytochemicals present in this plant may be responsible for the aforementioned pharmacological effects.


Paederia foetida Linn, phytochemical study, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, analgesic activity, anthelmintic activity.

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