Numbers and Numbers: Signs and Symbols from Pre-Pottery Neolithic in Bilad al-Sham

Abdel Halim al-Shiyab, Khaled Abu Ghanimeh


This study examines the knowledge that people in the Levant during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period had of numbers and numerals through a review of archaeological, architectural and artistic finds and burial customs that contain signs and symbols, deriving from that their knowledge of numbers. The article attempts to evaluate those signs and symbols in order to reach logical conclusions that allow us to determine the knowledge they had of numbers and numerals. There can be no doubt that the recurring presence of those signs and symbols in many locations and varied contexts and forms indicates certain meanings.


Numbers, Signs, Natufian Period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Period.

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