The First Mongol Tribes:Emergence, Integration and Unification (616 A.H./1218A.D.)

Qasem M. Ghnemat, Abdulmu’ez Bani Issa, Omar Saleh Al-Omari


Mongol history has engaged the interest of many Arab and Muslim scholars and historians due to the critical importance of East Asia in general and this multi-ethnic nation in particular. It, however, is quite difficult to obtain enough accurate data about them to form the basis for later historical study.
The origin, early life and native countries of the Mongols and the formation of their state have been the springboard for many contradictory points of view. Regardless of the sources of information: Chinese, Persian, English or Arabic, the research results have not shown any congruence, and the questions have been left for further investigation due to historically inadequate data.
This study focuses on the first Mongol tribes, their emergence, integration and unification. The regions of eastern Asia were inhabited by scattered Mongol tribes of different origins: Chinese, Turkish, etc. since the sixth century A.H./twelfth century A.D. These tribes lived a nomadic life and were ruled by leaders who engaged in many battles to prove their dominance and power. At the beginning of the seventh century A.H./thirteenth century A.D., these tribes unified to form the Mongol state under the leadership of an ambitious young man called Timujin (Genghis Khan) in 603 A.H./1206 A.D.
The study concludes with new findings, showing that the Mongols before the sixth century A.H./ twelfth century A.D. were not known by this name. The tribes that had spread around Lake Baikal and subsequently formed the nucleus of the Mongol state were of different origins and religions. They were also affected by Christian missionaries and Chinese civilization.


Mongols, East Asia, State formation

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