Importance of the Outer Structures in the Settlement Planning of the Cities of The Early Bronze Age: A Case Study From Khirbet ez-Zeraqon

Khaled A. Douglas


During the Third Millennium B.C, the emergence of the city in Southern Levant was responsible for fundamental changes in the settlement planning of the Early Bronze Age. Space inside the city became one of the most important factors in the planning process. Several well-built structures and courtyards with hard plaster floors were excavated outside the gate and the fortification walls of the lower city of Khirbet ez-Zeraqon. One interpretation of the existence of the outer structures is that after building the walled settlement, unexpected population growth of the settlement or unanticipated spatial needs for certain kinds of activities, created needs for extra spaces. The necessity for extra spaces may have been resolved by using spaces outside the city walls. Another interpretation is that the usage area outside the city was intentional and was in the original plan of the city.


Architectural Planning, Early Bronze Age, Outer Structures

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