The Impact of Human and Natural Threats on the Archaeological Landscape of the Western part of Jalan, Sultanate of Oman.

Nasser Said Al-Jahwari

Abstract


This paper presents factors affecting the archaeological heritage in the western part of Ja'alan in Al-Sharqiyah Governorate, Oman. The author carried out three seasons (2010-2012) of archaeological investigations in this region, resulting in a number of archaeological features (importantly Early Bronze Age (EBA) Tombs, and Rock Art), which have been subject to several human and natural threats. The paper aims at drawing attention to such threats that could affect the archaeological heritage in this important region of Oman since prehistoric times in order to minimize their impact. To achieve this, the paper presents surveyed areas that have been subject to the direct or indirect impact of such threats based on examining and analyzing the survey which collected quantitative and qualitative data related to the archaeological remains in these areas. It then discusses the impact of such threats on the region's archaeological landscape, history and patterns of occupation over time. These threats have significantly contributed to a considerable loss of the area's history, resulting in providing a misleading picture of the real patterns of occupation over time. The most affected archaeological remains are the EBA tombs distributed across the whole region. Around 76 % of them are in a bad state of preservation because they are subject to high level of destruction mainly due to housing expansion, human development projects, and misuse and/or reuse.

Keywords


Oman, Ja‘alan District, Archaeological Heritage, Human-Natural Threats, Settlement Patterns, Early Bronze Age.

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