French Diplomacy Regarding the Egyptian Question from the Beginning of the Crisis in 1831 until the Hünkar Iskelesi Treaty of 1833. A Study in the Light of Unpublished British Foreign Office Documents.

Yousef Hussein Yousef Omar


The study deals with the evolution of French-Ottoman relations since 1536 and focuses on the Egyptian question, beginning in 1831 when Muhammad Ali forces occupied the Levant and defeated the Ottoman Empire more than once. This led to the concentration of French diplomacy on the Egyptian question, especially after the Ottoman Empire enlisted the help of Russia against Muhammad Ali. Russia’s sending their fleet and military forces to the Bosporus raised the anger of France, which had a great interest in the Ottoman Empire, especially in the Levant. This forced it to coordinate with Britain against Russia. The study also touched on France’s position on the signing of the Kütahya Reconciliation on April 8, 1833 between the Ottoman Empire and Mohammed Ali Pasha, and the Hünkar Iskelesi Treaty on July 8, 1833 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, and the Münchengrätz Treaty on September 18, 1833 between Russia and Austria. This prompted France to threaten several times to send its fleet to the Dardanelles in order to protect its interests in the Ottoman Empire. This position continued until the end of the first phase of the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Muhammad Ali in 1834.


France, Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali Pasha, The Eastern Question.


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