Effect of Conservation Agriculture Technique on the Sustainability of Wheat Productivity and Soil Fertility Properties in Northeastern Syria's Rain-fed Conditions

rami moris kaba, Yaser Kert, Shirin Fatah

Abstract


This research was conducted at AL Qamishli Scientific Agricultural Research Center, 1st stability Zone, according to a split plot design, by planning Durum WHEAT (Cultivar Douma1) in four treatments (Zero-Tillage planting, Conventional Tillage, Zero tillage planting with sub soiling to break the hard layer in the first year and Conventional Tillage with sub soiling) with three replications for each treatment. The Baldan seeder was used to cultivate the treatment of Zero-Tillage. Whereas the treatment of Conventional Tillage was cultivated using Harrow. The research results indicated for ten years (2008 - 2018) that the conservation agriculture ZT system had a significant effect on increasing wheat productivity compared to Conventional Tillage CT. We found that the average grain yield for the ten years was the highest significantly under the conditions of conservative cultivation 1528 (kg ha-1), while the lowest significantly was under the conditions of conventional cultivation 1325 (kg ha-1). Also, one-time subsoiling tillage combined with the conservative cultivation system's application significantly affected increasing the grain yield 1534 (kg ha-1). Moreover, the average increase for the ten seasons was 25.5% compared to conventional cultivation treatment without deep cultivation. The sub-soiling with the application of the conservation system had a significant effect on the increase in yield 1528 (kg ha-1), and the increase as an average of the ten seasons 23.3% compared to the treatment of Conventional agriculture without sub-soiling. Precipitation use efficiency (PUE) was significantly higher under Conservation Agriculture ZT (14.85 Kg.mm-1. ha-1) followed by ZT+SB (14.77 Kg.mm-1. ha-1) and CT+SB (13.31 Kg.mm-1. ha-1) with increased ratios 20.9% -%20.3 -%8.4 respectively compared with the CT tillage systems (12.28 Kg.mm-1. ha-1). Stability analysis indicated that the Conservation Agriculture ZT system's yields were less influenced by adverse growing conditions than conventional tillage CT systems, particularly under low rainfall.

Keywords


Conservation Agriculture ZT, Conventional Tillage CT, Syria, Subsoil, Wheat.

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