Determination of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Bacterial Isolates in Two Hospitals of Baghdad

Imad Shukur Mahmoud, Khalil Ibrahim Altaif, Mohammad Khaled Abu Sini, Safa Sharif Daoud, Nahla Numan Aqel


To evaluate the resistance of clinical isolates from two main hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq, against commonly used antimicrobial drugs.
Five hundred clinical samples were collected from various sources at two hospitals in Baghdad and subjected to establish microbiological methods to determine their sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial sensitivity test used was the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Interpretations of the test outcomes were according to international values.
Out of 500 clinical specimens, it was possible to obtain 239 bacterial isolates. The predominant isolates (74 specimens; 31%) were from throat swabs from which 40 isolates were of GAβHS followed by 16 of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The second group of isolates were from blood (67 specimens; 28%) in which Staphylococcus aureus was represented by 20 specimens followed by Proteus species by 16 specimens. The third group of isolates was from the urine specimens (42 specimens; 17.6%). The urine isolates were distributed as Proteus spp (20 specimens) followed by bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (8 specimens each). The fourth group of isolates was from sputum (40 specimens; 16.7%) in which GAβHS represented 18 isolates followed by 12 isolates of K. pneumoniae. No Proteus spp was isolated from either sputum or purulent wounds. Similarly, no GAβHS and K. pneumoniae were isolated from purulent wounds. The results of the antimicrobial resistance tests among the bacterial isolates revealed that all isolates were highly resistant to most of the drugs used in this study. GAβHS was resistant to all of the drugs except for Cefotaxime (76.7%). Ps. aeruginosa isolates were completely resistant to Cefotaxime, Cephalexin and Amoxicillin.
From this study it is concluded that multiple-resistant bacteria isolates are common and that antimicrobial resistance is widespread in Iraq. A policy to overcome this crisis will be urgently needed.


Multi-Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial Agents, Antibiotic Sensitivity Test.

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