Military Timar in Palestine in Early Ottoman Palestine

Zuhair Abd Allatif

Abstract


This article deals with military feudalism (the timar system) in Palestine
during the 10th H./16th A.D. century. It had first appeared in the Buwayhid
period and continued under the Saljuqs, Mamluks and Ottomans. The article
clarifies the types of timar: the khass al-hamayuni (private income of the
sultan), the khass amir al-umara (private income of the chief commander), the
zi‘amet and the timar and distinguishes the fees and taxes that the timar holder
collected: the ‘ushr, the kharaj and the fees on the number of sheep, and the
badhuwa, the jizyah, hisbah and ‘urfi fees.
The regulations for the timars, the method of distribution, the officials
responsible and the problems that they faced, whether related to the sipahis or
the peasants and the ways by which the sipahis managed their timars and the
methods that they followed to collect their dues and the social and economic
consequences that resulted from its performance, especially on the sipahis,
some of whom became rich and the peasants whose condition worsened due to
what they had to pay to the timar holders.

Keywords


Timar, Kharaj, ‘Ushr, Sipahi, Zi‘amet, Khass.

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