The Political Reform Movement of al-Muttaraf bin al Muggera bin Shu’uba and Its Impact on the Umayyad Caliphate in the Second Half of the First Century (76H/695AD-78H/697AD)

Shehab Ashyyab

الملخص


This paper examines the effects of the movement of Al-Muffaraf bin Al-Muggera bin Shu’uba, in which he sought to reform the political system of the Umayyad Caliphate. How successful was it? A relative of Abu Sufian, and before he converted to Islam, Al-Muttaraf was a distinguished figure in the caliphate, and was known for his loyalty to it, especially during the period between the death of Abu Taleb (the uncle of Mohammed) and the conquest of Mecca in the year 8 H/628. In consequence of his high position in the court, and aided by his family ties, Al-Muttaraf and his brothers Urwa and Hamzeh were appointed to the government of the caliphate of Abd Al-Malek bin Marwan (654-686 AD). Despite this position of importance, Al-Muttaraf undertook to start a political reform movement against the regime because of his dissatisfaction with its policies, values and procedures – an undertaking which eventually cost him his life. His consolidation of the basic rules of reform is encapsulated in two signal achievements: (1) the implementation of the concept of Shuura in choosing the Muslim Caliph, and (2) greater freedom of expression and the formation of a loyal opposition.

الكلمات المفتاحية


Pillage, Determinisim, Quran readers, Al-Rawafed, Al-Khawarej, Al-Safreye, Al-Abadeye

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