A Newly Developed Saliva-Based Elisa to Determine Immune Response to Milk Proteins in Young Diabetic Jordanians: Lack of Association for Infantile Feeding Practices

Hayder A. Al-Domi, Mark R. Jones, James R. Bergan


There is growing worldwide interest in the identification of potential environmental factors that may trigger the pancreatic autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. The possible immunogenicity of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and modified and heat processed BSA with bovine insulin (mBI-BSA) was examined. Fifty diagnosed diabetic children under the age of 14 years and their unrelated age and gender matched control subjects were identified. Serum and saliva samples were collected. IgG and secretory IgA antibodies to BSA as well as to native and heat processed mBI-BSA were determined. Data on participants’ breastfeeding and early infant feeding practices were collected using a constructed questionnaire developed previously. Heated mBI-BSA (70ºC/5min) has shown the highest relative change in both IgG and sIgA titre levels, whereas mBI-BSA has also shown a substantial relative change in antibody titre levels compared to that of untreated BSA. Mean log effect of mBI-BSA on the titre levels of both IgG and sIgA antibodies in both DC and NDC has increased by approximately 1.3 fold of that of unheated or modified BSA (P = 0.000 and 0.114, respectively). The mean log effect of heat processed mBI-BSA at (70ºC/5min) on IgG and sIgA titre levels in both groups has also increased by nearly 1.5 of that of native BSA (P = 0.000) and 1.1 fold of that of native mBI-BSA (P = 0.000). There were no immune responses to mBI-BSA heated at 70 ºC/10min, 80ºC/5min and 60ºC/5min). There were significant correlations between DC (60%) and NDC (25%) for the positivity of CRP (P = 0.05).
The saliva-based ELISA system may be a useful proxy of immune responses and may constitute new grounds for the ongoing dietary intervention trials. The modification and thermal processing procedure of BSA is a merely sophisticated system in eliciting immune responses and is neither limited to diabetic patients nor associated with breastfeeding or early infant feeding practices, and may reflect unspecific defect of the immune system.


Autoimmune, Immune response, Feeding practice, Gut maturity, Protein, Modification, Heat, Diabetogenicity

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