The Effect of Animal Manure and Green Manure on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Gypsum Soil

Helal Gaerli, Amera Alhafeth, Muhammad Manhal Alzoubi, Yehea Ramadan, Khaled Alshebli, Ali Alkuto, Miada Fatoom

Abstract


A set of field trials were conducted to study the effect of animal (sheep manure) and green manure on soil properties and productivity of wheat, corn and cotton grown in gypsum soil at Beer al-Hashem Research Station of Raqqa Research Centre- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) for the growth seasons 2004-2010. Completely randomized block with four treatments and three replicates was used. Animal manure was added at a rate of 20 ton/ha every two years (pre-cultivation) to treatment FYM and 10 ton/ha every two years (plus green manure turned upside down in soil before flowering stage) to treatment (FYM + GM). The GM treatment was planted with green manure and turned upside down in soil. The control was (C). The crop rotation of wheat (Sham3), corn (Ghouta82),vetch (vicia sativa) and cotton (Raqqa5) was used. Inorganic fertilizers were added as recommended by Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MAAR), based on soil analysis. Soil, animal and green manures were analyzed prior to cultivation. The data collected was analyzed statistically using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% probability. The results showed a significant increase in productivity of the three crops using animal manure. For wheat experiment, the grain productivity was 4.97, 3.17, 4.19 ton /ha versus 3.54, 1.93, 3.49 ton/ha for the control in the three seasons, respectively. For corn experiment, the grain productivity was 4.8, 2.77, 3.04 ton/ha versus 3.6, 1.75, 2.25 ton/ha for the control in the three seasons, respectively. Treatments amended with green manure in the third season of corn experiment yielded over other treatments (3.85, 3.41 ton/ha). For cotton experiment, the productivity significantly increased in treatments amended with animal and green manures (4.23, 1.87, 2.67 ton/ha versus 1.29, 1.94, 3.06 ton/ha for the control in the three seasons, respectively). Also the productivity significantly increased in treatment amended with green manure as compared to the control in most seasons. Upon harvesting, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) significantly increased in treatments amended with animal and green manures as compared to the control. In addition, the animal and green fertilizers contributed to increasing nitrogen and phosphorus in soil.

Keywords


Animal Manure, Green Manure, Gypsum Soil, Soil Properties

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