Influence of season on some sexual behavior and semen characteristics in Holstein–Friesian bulls

A. A. Al-Ani, M. A. Ishak, A. A. Al-Rawi


This study was undertaken at Artificial InseminationCenter/Animal Resources Services Organization / Ministry of Agricultural, Abu – Ghraib during the period of May 1st, 2002 to March 10th, 2003 to investigate the influenceof season on some sexual behavior andsemen characteristics of Holstein –Friesianbulls in Iraq. Nine bulls of 17 - 21 months old and 350 - 450Kg weight were used in this study.The total collected ejaculates were 387(43 ejaculate / bull). A considerableshortest (p< 0.05)reaction time (68.15 ± 2.88 seconds), normal mounting (1.00 ± 0.01) and greatest deep thrust (1.06 ± 0.02) were recorded during Winter,slightly less during Autumn and lowest during Summer and Spring. Excluding data of sperm individual motility, better semen characteristics of all bulls was observed during Winter, slightly lower during Spring and deteriorated during Summer. In conclusion, the better sexual behaviorand semen qualityofHolstein – Friesian bulls in Iraq were noticed during Winter and the worst wasduring Summer.


Bulls, sexual behavior,semen, season

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