Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Jordanian Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) Landraces As Revealed by RAPD Markers

Adel H. Abdel-Ghani

Abstract


Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) landrace populations collected from three eco-agricultural zones from Jordan were studied; using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. DNA from ten individuals (i.e. lines) per population was analyzed using 21 RAPD primers. A total of 148 reproducible bands were detected, of which 128 (86.5%) were polymorphic. Nei’s genetic distance varied from 0.07 to 0.33. The unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) tree based on the genetic distance revealed that populations collected from northern and southern zones were grouped into two separate clusters in line with their putative geographic origins. Populations collected from the central zone were found mixed with populations collected from the two other zones, indicating that the villages located in the geographical center of the study area have a frequent exchange of seeds with other villages from northern and southern zones. In average, the proportion of polymorphic loci and Nei’s gene diversity ranged among populations from 0.227 to 0.568 and from 0.131 to 0.218 respectively, implying that more chance to select individual lines with desirable traits from more diverse populations. Genetic variation was larger within (56.35%) than among (36.44%) populations; suggesting that collecting more genotypes within populations rather than collecting more populations within the same eco-agricultural zone is essential to capture the highest portion of genetic variability existing in Jordanian wheat landraces. The results indicate that Jordanian wheat landraces represent a valuable genetic resource for enlarging the genetic variation of durum wheat breeding programs.

Keywords


RAPD, Genetic Diversity, Durum Wheat Landraces, Population Structure

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