Effect of Overpumping on Water Quality Deterioration in Arid Areas:



This paper studies the effect of overpumping on water quality deterioration in arid areas/Dead Sea Basin/Jordan. About 500 water samples were analyzed and investigated for the purposes of this study, from different locations in the basin. Results showed that water tables have declined in the range of 3.25 m/y. Abstracting 81.1 MCM of water, a much higher volume than the safe yield of the basin of 57 MCM with an overpumping rate of 142 % of the safe yield. Electrical conductivity increased from 983 µS/cm in Swaqa to 1430 µS/cm in Wala due to overpumping. Groundwater is slightly alkaline with an average pH value ranges between 6.94 -7.63. All water samples are classified as very hard. Values of nitrate ranges from 1 mg/l in Swaqa to 28 mg/l in Heedan. The highest average values of E.coli 42 MPN/100 ml encountered in Heedan while the lowest value is 4 MPN/100 ml in Swaqa and Lajjoun. Piper Classification showed that the type of groundwater in the study area is earth alkaline water with increased portions of alkalis with prevailing sulfate and chloride.


Arid Areas, Overpumping, Deterioration, Water quality, Electrical Conductivity

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