Integrated Management of Tomato Damping-off Disease in Bekrajo, Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Jalal H Ismael, Rezan M Salih

Abstract


Damping-off of tomato is one of the countable diseases in Sulaimani governorate-Kurdistan region, Iraq. Therefore, in vitro and plastic house experiments were conducted at Bekrajo-Agricultural faculty experimental station in order to control many pathogenic fungi. Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, F. accuminatum, F. compactum and F. oxysporum were isolated from tomato seedlings (cv. King Rock). Pathogenicity tests showed that all the isolated fungi were pathogenic to tomato but without significant differences (P≤0.05). In vitro antagonism and parasitism tests were revealed that the two bioagents Trichoderma harzianum 20K1 and T. viride (local isolate) were observed to have profound effect on the isolated pathogenic fungi. The efficacy of some fungicides was evaluated on the pathogenic fungi and the two bioagents. Keenol (a. i. Chinosol) was found to be the best significantly effective and achieved 100% inhibition of the fungus mycelia. Slight effect of Benlate (a. i benomyl) on T. harzianum (20K1) was observed, so it was selected in the integrated management program of the disease later. Some local crude extracts were investigated to determine their efficacy on the isolated fungi and T. harzianum (20K1). All the plant extracts were showed different significant influences on the pathogenic fungi and the bioagents except Hypericum triquetrifolim that resulted in no mycelial growth inhibition, therefore, this plant extract was inserted in the control program. Green house trials revealed that the best effective combination for successful integrated management as well as plant vigor was H. triquertifolium plant extract, Benomyl and T. harzianum 20K1).

Keywords


Damping-off, Fungicide, Management, Plant extracts, Plant pathogenic fungi, Trichderma

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