Effect of Thiram as A Seed-Dressing Fungicide on Growth and Enzymatic Activities of Fusarium solani on Legumes

Kholoud Alananbeh, Salama Abu-Elyazeed Ouf, Khyreyah Jubran

Abstract


Many plant-pathogenic fungi constitute major constraints to legume production. Fungicides are the most important components in the management of fungal diseases. Imported legume seeds that are found in the local market and are used for cultivation in Al Madinah region are thiram-coated. The current study was conducted to (i) isolate and identify the common soil-borne fungi found in legume fields in Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia (ii) compare the effectiveness of coated and hand-treated thiram coated seeds with regard to seed germination, enzymatic activities of pathogens, and nodulation of the target plant. Six genera and eight species of fungi were morphologically and molecularly identified and were belonging to Fusarium solani, F. equisetai, Gibberella moniliformis, Chochliobolus hawaiiensis, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium aculeatum, Rhizopus oryzae and A. flavus.. Fusarium solani was the most frequently recovered fungus from the total fungi recovered. Among test plants species, alfalfa had the highest percentage germination in all treatments followed by faba bean and common bean. Alfalfa recorded the highest number of nodules under different treatments reaching to 49.48 nodules/root. The number of nodules dropped to11.33 nodules/root when the local seeds were treated with thiram. The same trend was noticed in the case of common bean. The fungicide thiram exerted significant reduction in mycelial growth of the isolated fungi when used at the recommended rates compared with the untreated control. Fusarium solani cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities decreased as the concentration of thiram increased from 375 to 3000 ppm.

Keywords


Enzyme activity, pesticides, plant-pathogenic fungi, Saudi Arabia, spore germination

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