Human and Animal Cloning: Boon and Bane in the Light of Islam and Ethics

Bilal Ahmad Ghareeb

Abstract


The advantages and disadvantages of human and animal cloning are reviewed. However, cloning is not a creation per se. Creation is proper to the Creator (Koran, Pilgrimage, 73): …Those, on whom, besides Allah, ye call, cannot create (even) a fly, if they all met together for the purpose!...
Animal cloning permissibility in Islam is conditioned by no causing of harm to animals and the domination of advantages. Cloning of whole human body is forbidden, even if it were for treatment purposes. Reasons are discussed (Contradiction with diversity, social and legal problems…). Islam preserves the society nucleus (the family) and dignity; therefore, it prohibits the implication of a third party in the reproduction process.
However, therapeutic cloning can be permitted and even rewarded by God. The embryo stage at which it can be manipulated raises important questions of ethical, legal and religious order and, therefore, needs jurisprudence (Fatwa). Up to what fetal developmental stage can an embryo be manipulated (e. g. extraction of stem cells)? Is it permissible before acquiring the spirit (40 or 120 days)?
Human being is not authorized to spoil on Earth even if he has a kind of superiority over other creatures which are communities like us (Koran, Livestock: 38)
Superiority is not absolute and based on responsibility (stewardship). Awareness and precautions are necessary before drawbacks are irreversible.

Keywords


Animal and Human Cloning, Ethics, Islam, Pharmaceuticals, Reproduction.

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