Levels of Proportional Reasoning for Students in the Upper Basic Stage in Jordan

Eman R. Abed


This study aimed to investigate the levels of proportional reasoning of students in grades 7, 8, 9 and 10. It also investigated the differences in these levels due to grade level and gender.
The sample of the study consisted of (1043) students in grades 7, 8, 9 and 10 chosen from four schools in Amman. To achieve the objectives of the study, a test in proportional reasoning was developed. The test consisted of 20 items in three forms. The first form concerned with the concept of proportional reasoning and the second form concerned with direct, opposite proportional and division proportional while the third form concerned with the proportionality. The validity and reliability were guaranteed by using suitable methods.
Results of the study showed that most of students were in the first level of proportional reasoning. The results also revealed the existence of significant differences in the proportional reasoning following the different grades for the benefit of grade 10 and this ability is developing normally by the age. This may lead to the curriculum has main role in developing these levels.
The study recommended being interest in developing the levels of proportional reasoning of students in different categories and grades.


Proportional Reasoning, Direct Proportion, Opposite Proportion, Ratio

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